Tapir population patterns under the disappearance of free-standing water

Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, David Sima-Pantí, Maria Andrade, Angelica Padilla, Oscar Retana-Guaiscon, Khiavett Sanchez-Pinzón


Baird’s tapir is the largest Neotropical tapir species, and it is considered Endangered by the IUCN.  The Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (CBR) is the largest protected tropical forest in Mexico.  The CBR is at the heart of the Maya Forest, a tri-national forest located in Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize that is the largest tropical forest outside the Amazon River basin.  Free-standing water in the CBR occurs in only a few ephemeral ponds.  These ponds are rare in the landscape, with a mean density of one pond in every 10 km2, and with an average distance among ponds of 3 km.  Only some of these ponds have free-standing water in every year.  A decreasing trend in water availability from these ponds was detected from 2008 to 2018.  Our present objective was to document population of the tapirs during these 11 years, and reveal any relationship to the pattern of water availability.  Using the technique of photo-trapping, we monitored from 9 to 15 ponds over a period of 8 years (a total of more than 18,000 camera-days) during the 11-year period.  Results showed that although the population remained relatively stable, the index of relative abundance indicated a slight decrease in population abundance and in some sites seemed at least superficially associated with decreasing water availability.  Such long-term population studies are becoming more important for estimating the impacts of possible changes and for predicting the future of populations.  In turn, they assist the conservation of endangered and sensitive species such as Baird’s tapir.

Palabras clave

Calakmul Biosphere Reserve; ponds; Tapirus bairdii; Tapirella bairdii; water availability.

Texto completo:

PDF (English) HTML (English)


Alvarez-Castañeda, S., T. Alvarez, and N. Gonzalez-Ruiz. 2015. Keys for identifying Mexican Mammals in the field adn in the Laboratory. CIBNOR, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biólogicas, UAM-Metropolitana. Ciudad de México, México.

Carrillo-Reyna, N. L., R. Reyna-Hurtado, and B. Schmook 2015. Abundancia relativa y selección de hábitat de Tapirus bairdii en las reservas de Calakmul y Balam Ku, Campeche. Revista Mexicana de biodiversidad 86:202-207.

Dobson, F. S., and J. Yu. 1993. Rarity in Neotropical Forest Mammals Revisited. Conservation Biology 7:586–591.

Garcia, M., C. Jordan, G. O’Farril, C. Poot, N. Meyer, N. Estrada, R. Leonardo, E. Naranjo, A. Simons, A. Herrera, C. Urgilés, C. Schank, L. Boshoff, L. and M. Ruiz-Galeano. 2016. Tapirus bairdii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016:e.T21471A45173340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T21471A45173340.en. Downloaded on 05 July 2019.

Garcia, E. 1988. Adaptación del sistema climatológico de Koppen a la República Mexicana. Ciudad de México, México.

Hines, J. E. 2009. PRESENCE 6.9. Software to estimate Patch Occupancy and Related Parameters: USGS-PWRC. Http//www.mbr-pwrc.usgs.gov/software/presence.html (accessed 19 October 2018).

Isaac, N. J. B., S. T. Turvey, B. Collen, C. Waterman and J. E. M. Baillie. 2007. Mammals on the EDGE: Conservation priorities based on threats and phylogeny. PloS ONE 2(3):e296.

Inegi (Instituto Nacional de Estadística Geografia e Informática). 2015. Conteo socio-económico del 2015. Estado de Campeche. INEGI. Campeche, México.

Jordan, C.A., B. Hoover, A. J. Dans, C. Schank and J. A. Miller. 2019. The Impact of Hurricane Otto on Baird’s Tapir Movement in Nicaragua’s Indio Maíz Biological Reserve. Pp. 5-19 in Movement Ecology of Neotropical Forest Mammals (Reyna-Hurtado, R., and C. Chapman, eds.). Springer International Publishing.

Lira-Torres, I., M. Briones-Salas, and G. Sánchez-Rojas. 2014. Abundancia relativa, estructura poblacional, preferencia de hábitat y patrones de actividad del tapir centroamericano Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), en la Selva de Los Chimalapas, Oaxaca, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 62:1407-1419.

MacKenzie, D.I., J. D. Nichols, J. D. Royle, K. H. Pollock, L. L. Bailey and J. E. Hines. 2006. Occupancy Estimation and modeling. Academic Press. Burlington, U.S.A.

MacKenzie, D. I., and J. D. Nichols. 2004. Occupancy as a surrogate for abundance estimation.  Animal biodiversity and conservation 27:461-467.

Magrin, G. C., D. Gay García, J. C. Cruz-Choque, A. R. Gímenez, G. J. Moreno, C. Nagy, and A. Villamizar. 2007. Latin América. Climate change 2007: Impacts, adaptability and vulnerability. Pp. 581-615 in Contribution of working group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental panel on climate change. Eds., Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, U.K.

Mardero, S., E. Nickl, B. Shmook, L. Schnieder and J. Rogan. 2012. Sequias en el sur de la península de Yucatán: Análisis de la variabilidad anual y estacional de la precipitación. Investigación Geográficas, Boletín del instituto de Geografía, UNAM, Mexico 78:19-33.

Naranjo, E. 2009. Ecology and conservation of Baird’s tapir in Mexico. Tropical Conservation Science 4:140–158.

Naranjo, E. J., S. A. Amador-Alcala, F. A. Falconi-Briones, and R. Reyna-Hurtado. 2015. Distribución, abundancia y amenazas a las poblaciones de tapir centroamericano (Tapirus bairdii) y pecarí de labios blancos (Tayassu pecari) en México. Therya 6:227-249.

O’Connell, A. F. and L. L. Bailey. 2011. Inference for occupancy and occupancy dynamics. Pp. 191-204 in Camera traps in animal ecology. Springer, Tokyo, Japan.

O’Connell, A.F., J. D. Nichols, and U. K. Karanth. 2011. Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer. Tokyo, Japan.

O’Farrill, G., M. Galetti, and A. Campos-Arceiz. 2013. Frugivory and seed dispersal by tapirs: an insight on their ecological role. Integrative Zoology 8:4–17.

O’Farrill, G., K. Gauthier-Schampaert, B. Rayfield, O. Bodin and S. Calme. 2014. The Potential Connectivity of Waterhole Network and the Effectiveness of Protected Areas Under Various Drought Scenarios. PLoS ONE 9(5):e95049.

Pennington, T. and J. Sarukhan. 1998. Arboles Tropicales de Mexico. UNAM-Fondo de cultura Económica. Ciudad de México, México.

R Development Core Team. 2016. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria.

Reyna-Hurtado, R. 2007. Social ecology of the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) in the Calakmul forest, Mexico. PhD Thesis. Department of Wildlife Ecology and Conservation, University of Florida. Gainesville, U.S.A.

Reyna-Hurtado, R., E. Rojas-Flores, and G. W. Tanner. 2009. Home range and habitat preferences of white-lipped peccary groups (Tayassu pecari) in a seasonal tropical forest of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 90:1199-1209.

Reyna-Hurtado, R. 2009. Conservation status of the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari) outside the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve in Campeche, Mexico: a synthesis. Tropical Conservation Science 2:159-172

Reyna-Hurtado, R. A., G. O’Farril, D. Sima, M. Andrade, A. Padilla, and L. Sosa. 2010. Las aguadas de Calakmul. CONABIO/Biodiversitas 93:1-5.

Reyna-Hurtado, R., C. A. Chapman, S. Calme, and E. Pedersen. 2012. Searching in heterogeneous environments: foraging strategies in the white-lipped peccary (Tayassu pecari). Journal of Mammalogy 93:124-133

Reyna-Hurtado, R., M. Sanvicente, N. Carrillo, J. Pérez-Flores, and S. Calme. 2016. Insights into a multiannual estimates of home range if a Baird’s tapir in the Maya forest. Therya 7:271-276

Ripple, W. J., K. Abernethy, M. G. Betts, G. Chapron, R. Dirzo, M. Galetti and T. M. Newsome. 2016. Bushmeat hunting and extinction risk to the world’s mammals. Royal Society open science 3:60498.

Royle, J. A. and R. M. Dorazio. 2006. Hierarchical models of animal abundance and occurrence. Journal of Agricultural, Biological, and Environmental Statistics 11:249-263.

Sandoval-Seres, E., R. Reyna-Hurtado, M. Briceño-Mendez, and R. Cerda-Vega. 2016. Pond use and relative abundance of Tapirus bairdii in the Calakmul region, Campeche, Mexico. Therya 7:39-50.

Schank, C., M. V. Cove, M. J. Kelly, E. Mendoza, G. O’Farrill, R. Reyna-Hurtado, et al. 2017. Using a novel model approach to assess the distribution and conservation status of the endangered Baird’s tapir. Diversity and Distributions 23:1459–1471.

Tobler, M., E. J. Naranjo and I. Lira-Torres. 2006. Habitat Preference,Feeding Habits and Conservation of Baird’s Tapir in Neotropical Montane Oak Forests. Pp. 347–359 in Ecology and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Oak Forests (Kappelle, M. Ed),. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Enlaces refback

  • No hay ningún enlace refback.


THERYA es publicada por la Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C.  Se distribuye bajo una Licencia de Creative Commons Atribución-NoComercial-SinDerivar 4.0 Internacional.

DERECHOS DE AUTOR Y DERECHOS CONEXOS, THERYA es una publicación digital cuatrimestral editada por la Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C.  Hacienda Vista Hermosa 107, Colonia Villa Quietud, Coyoacan 04960.  Distrito Federal, México.  Telefono (612) 123-8486, www.mastozoologiamexicana.org.  Editor responsable: Dr. Sergio Ticul Álvarez Castañeda (therya@cibnor.mx).  Reservas de Derechos al Uso Exclusivo No. 04-2009-112812171700-102, ISSN: 2007-3364 ambos otorgados por el Instituto Nacional de Derechos de Autor.  Responsable de la última actualización de este número, Unidad de informática de la Asociación Mexicana de Mastozoología A. C.  Dr. Sergio Ticul Álvarez Castañeda.  Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195.  La Paz, Baja California Sur, C. P. 23096.  Tel 612 123 8486.